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Ladder of Inference

  Chris Argyris (1990) describes the progressive process of making observations, gathering information, making assumptions, and deciding action as being similar to climbing up on a “ladder of inference.”  This concept was later used by Peter Senge in The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization.  Starting at the bottom of the […]

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The ‘Fimage Factor’ is Fear of IMAGE. If we were to summarize in a word why people wear masks, it would be FIMAGE. People spend thousands of dollars and hours every year to cultivate their personal image.  This image defines them.  People begin to develop this image in early adolescence and by the time they […]

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Don't 'We' on Yourself!

A fun way to keep the debrief light is to start getting people to notice how often we use the non-specific noun ‘We’, which we all do frequently when really we mean ‘I’. It is one particular way to spread around the responsibility and not take accountability for our own actions, opinions, failures and successes. […]

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Clarity Techniques

Facilitators use these techniques to reflect verbiage back to participants.  Do not judge their words, simply be a mirror for them to judge their own words.  Be careful not to ‘throw’ the responses in their face and always be polite, saying “Excuse me” if you need to interrupt. There are some fun tools you might […]

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Start-Up Techniques

Start-Up Techniques are facilitative behaviors that create, continue or re-start a safe environment for learning. In the beginning: Get agreement on the collective focus of the group/team. By saying, “What would this group like to create today?” Inform the group that they are responsible for how well the workshop goes. By saying, “Ask yourself and give yourself an […]

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Story of Two Wolves

This is a great parable to help participants make a conscious decision to actively participate. An old Cherokee is teaching his grandson about life. “A fight is going on inside me,” he said to the boy. “It is a terrible fight and it is between two wolves. One is evil – he is anger, envy, […]

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